Karl Scotland has a post on whether Kanban is only suitable for mature teams. (in case you haven’t guessed, he thinks not).
The magic of Kanban is that it all it really does is make the current situation explicit. If the team is in a position to respond then they will figure it out and do something; if they can’t then they have a much bigger problem than their methodology. Kanban does require that the people involved care about what they do (scepticism is disappointed caring) and periodically reflect, and patience (not my strongest suit).
On the whole, I’d say that Kanban-inspired improvement is most likely to stick, if the organisation can afford to wait. Sometimes the commercial situation is so dire that there’s not enough time for the team to discover its own way to more productivity.